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Rock Mechanic

Rock Mechanics is derived from the two words "rock" meaning "stone" and "mechanics" means mechanical. Rock mechanics is a topic of engineering science in which the structure of rock's behavior is addressed to external and internal factors and their variations. And since rock behavior depends entirely on its properties, so the study of the group of rock properties that matters in this context is also part of the topic of rock mechanics.
Since drilling and construction such as tunnels, dams, water supply and drainage channels, ground power plants, storage cavities for water, oil, gas, etc. and also the landfill of nuclear waste, underground mines, open pit mines, deep cuts for the water and ... in rock or on the rock, so the necessity of recognizing rocks and rock mechanics for man is undeniable.

History

Buildings and works such as the dams dating from the 29th and 30th centuries BC in Egypt and Iraq, the Egyptian Pyramids, The palace of Persepolis and The Rostam monuments built on stone (made of stone or in stone) testify to the use of precise methods of selection, Extraction, and exploration of stone, and these cases reflect the application of rock mechanics from a long time ago.

Our close relationship with Rocks goes back to prehistoric. At that time, arrows, ordinary tools and containers, fortifications, houses, and even tunnels were made of stone or in stone. Buildings and sculptures like the Egyptian temple of Abu Simbel show the use of very precise methods of selecting, excavating and exploring stone.

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, large tunnels were constructed for ventilation and drainage of mines, sewage, canalization and transportation by rail. In this century, building huge sculptures in Monte Rushmore desired to engage in the construction of large stone bodies, and just as good granite selection, despite turning engineers into other materials, proved to the world, in this century, material engineers according to the special needs can make alloys and plastics, working on Rock still engage the energy of industries and engineer imagination.

The science of Rock Mechanics has become widespread today, In addition to mineral works, In the design of surface and underground extraction spaces, In some cases, such as road and water tunnels, underground railways, shelters, power plants and underground reservoirs, the usage of Rock Mechanics for mineral engineers and Geotechnics is inevitable.


Topics related to rock mechanics
  •  Geological classification of Rocks:
The rocks are divided into three groups of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary in terms of their formation.
  •  Characteristics of Rock Systems Index:
For the classification of rock engineering, it is necessary to evaluate the characteristics of the rocks and by considering their collection together, an experienced person can find the useful correlations between them, for practical applications. Some of these characteristics are porosity, density, permeability, and strength.
  •  Strength and Crushing Scale if Rock:
In this discussion of rock mechanics, criteria rock fall, such as bending, cutting, and crushing or other factors that cause it to fall, reviewed.
  • Primary stresses in Rocks and their measurements:
Near the Earth's surface in mountainous areas, the tension in the rock's surface may close to zero, in some places, and elsewhere may be close to rock strength, manipulation and disturbance of the stress field through tunneling or even surfaces excavation, there may be stimulating the release of stored intense energy. In this section examines the magnitude and direction of the initial tensions in the site of a project.
  • Deformation of Rocks:
Deformability of the Rock's capacity for the distension against the load applied or the response to the loading caused by the excavation.
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