Cement word, retrieved from cement which is a Latin word and called (cement) and it’s a material that has adhesion properties of the materials, and it is intermediaries sticking. Cement for the first time like an introductory basis in 1824 AD by an English architect as a patent was registered.
In the construction industry, cement called to a material, which is used to paste the various kinds of materials such as stone to paste the sand, gravel, brick, etc. and main components of cement is from calcareous materials. Calcareous cement usually consists of silicate and aluminate silicate compounds, that would normally be found and are manufactured in cement manufacturing factories.
Although in the very last time different nations in a manner of using cement take advantage to use in the construction, but the first time in 1824, Portland cement was recorded in the name of "Joseph Spdyn" which was a British architect. Due to the similarity of appearance and quality of concretes which produced from initial cement to the rocks of Portland area in Dorset, England, this cement become known as Portland cement. And up today for the obtained cement that made from mixing and heating calcareous and the clay materials and the materials contain silica, alumina and iron oxide and milling clinker, and eventually obtained clinker, is used.
Type of cement and their usage
Additional material is not used for making the ordinary cement, and all four of the clinker which is based on its color, similar to the color of stones are available in Portland Island, Called by this name. According to standard ASTM C150, there are five types of Portland cement, briefly to consider them:
Portland cement type 1
This type of cement is used in cases of special conditions of building, such as resistance against sulfate waters, offshore construction works and … does not exist, the major use of Portland cement type 1: concrete buildings, bridges, water tanks, bricks and concrete blocks and canalizing.
Portland cement type 2
This cement become hard slower than the first type, for this reason, it’s used in parts which are directly under the sun, Portland cement type2 have more resistant against sulfated water.
Portland cement type 3
The way of producing this kind, it is not much different from Portland cement type 1, only the kind of raw material are made and processed with more accurate, the clinker of this type of cement again be passed of furnace, the limestone in the raw materials are well be combined with the other materials, and as if there is no the materials are finer it.
Portland cement type 4
The speed of combining of this type is slower than Portland cement type 2, and because of the low heat generation during the hardening of the cement, It is used for building dams.
Portland cement type 5
This cement is resistant to sulfate water, it's the reason, why must be used in the building which is against sulfate water.